Interactions on the Internet of Things

The Internet of Things is a computing network that has:

  • main nodes – connected objects;
  • servers for managing connected objects;
  • user nodes – mobile and personal computing devices.

There are three main types of interactions in the Internet of Things:

  • interaction between connected objects;
  • interaction between users and connected objects;
  • communication between remote servers and connected objects.

All of these interactions with connected IoT objects imply access to these objects. At the moment, there are three main ways of such access:

  • direct access;
  • access through a gateway;
  • access through the server.

Direct access to connected objects.

In the case of direct access, the connected objects must have their own IP address or network alias that can be accessed from any client application.

he disadvantages of this method include:

  • the need for a connected object to have a fixed IP address in the network, which depends on the provider of the Internet connection of such things. Another way out of the situation is to use an alias (IP address network alias), which requires the connected object to constantly contact a special server with a request to update the network address using the alias;
  • the limit of connections to connected objects, due to the quality of communication with them, as well as their weak computing resources. This problem is solved by including high-performance equipment in the connected objects and connecting the devices to a stable source of communication with the Internet. This causes the need for more energy consumption by such devices, which forces them to be stationary, powered by permanent sources of electricity.

Access to connected objects through a gateway.

Access to connected objects through a gateway is a more rational way of organizing interaction and completely replaces the method of direct access if it is necessary to organize a connection between a separate network of connected objects and the global Internet. Most standards for wireless sensor networks do not support the 1P protocol, using their own communication protocols. This feature necessitates a device for relaying messages from the sensor network to the Internet for protocol compatibility.

The disadvantages of this approach are the same as with direct access, but they apply to the gateway.

Access to connected objects through the server

Access to connected objects through the server implies that there is an intermediary between these objects and the user. Such an intermediary is a server, the main functions of which include:

  • receiving messages from connected objects and transmitting them to users;
  • storage of the received information and its processing;
  • providing a user interface with the possibility of two-way exchange between the user and the connected object.

When solving a number of problems, this method of access turns out to be more rational, since it allows transferring the load of processing user requests to the connected object to a centralized server, thereby unloading weak communication channels with objects, transferring the load to wired communication channels between the server and users.

Access to connected objects using a centralized server also provides reliable means of storing and processing information, allows these objects to interact with each other and use additional services such as cloud and fog computing.